Kriegs Verbrechen der Amerikaner von Hiroshima, Bosnien, Irak, Jugoslawien, Afghanistan, Süd Amerika
Kriegs Verbrechen, Massenmord an Zivilisten durch die Amerikaner sind die einzige Kultur der Amerikaner
Themenabend zum 70. Jahrestag der verheerenden Atombombenabwürfe am 6. und 9. August 1945.
Die britische Dokumentation „Countdown in ein neues Zeitalter“ zeigt die letzten Tage vor dem Abwurf der Bombe auf Hiroshima aus neuen Perspektiven. Auch erinnern die unter die Haut gehenden Bilder und Gespräche mit Überlebenden an wenig beachtete Folgen der nuklearen Katastrophe wie den Verkauf verwaister Kinder an Prostitutionsnetzwerke. Um 21.50 Uhr folgt ein Porträt des US-Mathegenies John von Neumann, der die „optimale“ Explosionshöhe der Bombe auf Nagasaki berechnete. „The Man Who Saved The World“ (22.50) erzählt die Heldengeschichte des russischen Obersts Petrow, der 1983 intuitiv einen Bombenangriff der USA als Fehlalarm einstufte und so wohl den Dritten Weltkrieg verhinderte.
NSA Dokumente: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II
General Eisenhower hatte zur Bombe eine kritischere Haltung als bislang bekannt
Zum 70. Jahrestag des Abwurfs der Atombombe auf Hiroshima veröffentlicht die George Washington University bislang unbekannte Dokumente. So hatte der Weltkriegsgeneral und spätere US-Präsident Dwight D. Eisenhower gehofft, den Krieg ohne den Einsatz der Bombe beenden zu können.
|This shows the „Little Boy“ weapon in the pit ready for loading into the bomb bay of the Enola Gay. (Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-BT)|
This compilation will not attempt to answer these questions or use primary sources to stake out positions on any of them. Nor is it an attempt to substitute for the extraordinary rich literature on the atomic bombings and the end of World War II. Nor does it include any of the interviews, documents prepared after the events, and post-World War II correspondence, etc. that participants in the debate have brought to bear in framing their arguments. Originally this collection did not include documents on the origins and development of the Manhattan Project, although this updated posting includes some significant records for context. By providing access to a broad range of U.S. and Japanese documents, mainly from the spring and summer of 1945, interested readers can see for themselves the crucial source material that scholars have used to shape narrative accounts of the historical developments and to frame their arguments about the questions that have provoked controversy over the years. To help readers who are less familiar with the debates, commentary on some of the documents will point out, although far from comprehensively, some of the ways in which they have been interpreted. With direct access to the documents, readers may develop their own answers to the questions raised above. The documents may even provoke new questions.
Contributors to the historical controversy have deployed the documents selected here to support their arguments about the first use of nuclear weapons and the end of World War II. The editor has closely reviewed the footnotes and endnotes in a variety of articles and books and selected documents cited by participants on the various sides of the controversy. While the editor has a point of view on the issues, to the greatest extent possible he has tried to not let that influence document selection, e.g., by selectively withholding or including documents that may buttress one point of view or the other. The task of compilation involved consultation of primary sources at the National Archives, mainly in Manhattan Project files held in the records of the Army Corps of Engineers, Record Group 77, but also in the archival records of the National Security Agency. Private collections were also important, such as the Henry L. Stimson Papers held at Yale University (although available on microfilm, for example, at the Library of Congress) and the papers of W. Averell Harriman at the Library of Congress. To a great extent the documents selected for this compilation have been declassified for years, even decades; the most recent declassifications were in the 1990s.
|This shows „Little Boy“ being raised for loading into the Enola Gay’s bomb bay. (Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-BT)|
The U.S. documents cited here will be familiar to many knowledgeable readers on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki controversy and the history of the Manhattan Project. To provide a fuller picture of the transition from U.S.-Japanese antagonism to reconciliation, the editor has done what could be done within time and resource constraints to present information on the activities and points of view of Japanese policymakers and diplomats. This includes a number of formerly top secret summaries of intercepted Japanese diplomatic communications, which enable interested readers to form their own judgments about the direction of Japanese diplomacy in the weeks before the atomic bombings. Moreover, to shed light on the considerations that induced Japan’s surrender, this briefing book includes new translations of Japanese primary sources on crucial events, including accounts of the conferences on August 9 and 14, where Emperor Hirohito made decisions to accept Allied terms of surrender.
[Editor’s Note: Originally prepared in July 2005 this posting has been updated, with new documents, changes in organization, and other editorial changes. As noted, some documents relating to the origins of the Manhattan Project have been included in addition to entries from the Robert P. Mieklejohn diaries and translations of a few Soviet documents, among other items. Moreover, recent significant contributions to the scholarly literature have been taken into account.]